Bhuwan Upadhyay

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Configmap in Spring Cloud Kubernetes



For the integration of Spring Cloud and Spring Boot applications that are running inside Kubernetes, we can use Spring Cloud Kubernetes which provides Spring Cloud common interface implementations that are easy to use and ready for production.

In k8s deployment, configmap can be used as a source for application configuration properties.

In this article, I will take you through how to use spring cloud Kubernetes to provide configuration properties for spring boot applications in k8s deployment using congfigmap.

This example needs kubectl minikube helm command-line tools in your machine.

Create Microservice

Let's create one simple spring boot microservice that manages orders coming from a customer. In my example, order microservice exposes basic CRUD operations APIS, along with Spring Webflux I used Spring Data R2DBC for data access and Kotlin language.

Initialize Project

NAME='Configmap in Spring Cloud Kubernetes' && PRJ=configmap-in-spring-cloud-kubernetes && \
mkdir -p $PRJ && cd $PRJ && \
curl https://start.spring.io/starter.tgz \
    -d dependencies=actuator,webflux,cloud-starter,data-r2dbc,h2,postgresql \
    -d groupId=io.github.bhuwanupadhyay -d artifactId=$PRJ -d packageName=io.github.bhuwanupadhyay.example \
    -d applicationName=Spring Boot -d name=$NAME -d description=$NAME \
    -d language=kotlin -d platformVersion=2.3.1.RELEASE -d javaVersion=11 \
    -o demo.tgz && \
    tar -xzvf demo.tgz && rm -rf demo.tgz

Basic CRUD operations APIS

data class OrderEntity(@Id var id: Long?, var item: String, var quantity: Int)
class OrderRoutes(private val handler: OrderHandler) {

    fun router() = router {
        accept(APPLICATION_JSON).nest {
            POST("/orders", handler::save)
            GET("/orders", handler::findAll)
            GET("/orders/{id}", handler::findOne)
            PUT("/orders/{id}", handler::update)

Containerizing Spring Boot Application

From Spring Boot 2.3.0.RELEASE the maven plugin of spring boot by default support build-image goal during execution which creates an OCI image using Cloud Native Buildpacks.


Run mvn clean install : spring boot maven plugin will create a docker image. The end part of the output log:

[INFO] Successfully built image 'docker.io/bhuwanupadhyay/configmap-in-spring-cloud-kubernetes:0.0.1-SNAPSHOT'

To publish docker image in the registry run the following command

docker push docker.io/bhuwanupadhyay/configmap-in-spring-cloud-kubernetes:0.0.1-SNAPSHOT

Helm Chart

To create a helm chart from your project directory run the following command.

helm create src/helm-chart

Replace value image repository and tag with your published docker image name and tag in src/helm-chart/values.yaml inside the helm chart.

  repository: docker.io/bhuwanupadhyay/configmap-in-spring-cloud-kubernetes
  pullPolicy: IfNotPresent
  tag: '0.0.1-SNAPSHOT'

Order microservice required data source configuration properties in the deployment to connect with the database to store order information.

Let's say we have two spring profiles dev and prod. In dev profile we want to run an application using h2 database while prod profile we want to run an application using postgresql database.

H2 is an embedded database so no need to create different pod instance, but it is not the case for postgresql because it is not embeddable, so we need to run in a different pod.

To run postgresql in helm deployment you need to add dependency inside helm chart src/helm-chart/Chart.yaml.

  - name: postgresql
    alias: db
    version: 8.10.5
    repository: https://charts.bitnami.com/bitnami

In Kubernetes config map is used to provide application configuration properties. To add configmap in your helm chart simply create a new YAML file in src/helm-chart/templates/configmap.yaml. For our example, we have to define multiple spring profiles for h2 and postgresql that are given below:

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
  name: {{ include "helm-chart.fullname" . }}-config
    {{- include "helm-chart.labels" . | nindent 4 }}
  application.yaml: |-
          base-path: /actuator
            include: ['configprops', 'env', 'health', 'info', 'logfile', 'loggers', 'threaddump']
          show-details: always
        name: order-service
      profiles: dev
        url: r2dbc:h2:mem://test?options=DB_CLOSE_DELAY=-1;DB_CLOSE_ON_EXIT=FALSE
      profiles: prod
        url: r2dbc:postgresql://{{ .Release.Name }}-db:5432/{{ .Values.db.postgresqlDatabase }}
        username: {{ .Values.db.postgresqlUsername }}
        password: {{ .Values.db.postgresqlPassword }}

Spring Cloud Kubernetes

Add dependency that used to load application properties from Kubernetes ConfigMaps and Secrets or reload application properties when a ConfigMap or Secret changes.


You need to make sure a pod that runs with spring-cloud-Kubernetes has access to the Kubernetes API. Using helm you can create a service account with Role and RoleBinding that has access to read configmaps and secrets by defining new yaml file in src/helm-chart/templates/cluster-reader.yaml.

kind: Role
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
  name: {{ include "helm-chart.fullname" . }}-reader
  {{- include "helm-chart.labels" . | nindent 4 }}
  - apiGroups: ["", "extensions", "apps"]
    resources: ["configmaps", "pods", "services", "endpoints", "secrets"]
    verbs: ["get", "list", "watch"]
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
  name: {{ include "helm-chart.fullname" . }}
  {{- include "helm-chart.labels" . | nindent 4 }}
  kind: Role
  name: {{ include "helm-chart.fullname" . }}-reader
  apiGroup: ""
  - kind: ServiceAccount
    name: {{ include "helm-chart.fullname" . }}
    apiGroup: ""

Finally, you need to provide environment variables to tell the application to use your configmap and namespace for spring cloud Kubernetes. Also, In your helm chart under src/microservice/templates/deployment.yaml change env, readinessProbe and livenessProbe health check settings, also modify container port to 8080 is the default for spring boot application.

            - name: SPRING_PROFILES_ACTIVE
              value: {{ .Values.spring.profiles.active }}
              value: {{ include "helm-chart.fullname" . }}-config
              value: {{ .Release.Namespace }}
            - name: http
              containerPort: 8080
              protocol: TCP
              path: /actuator/health
              port: http
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            periodSeconds: 60
            timeoutSeconds: 5
            failureThreshold: 5
              path: /actuator/health
              port: http
            initialDelaySeconds: 30
            periodSeconds: 5
            timeoutSeconds: 5
            failureThreshold: 5


Get ready for the deployment!

Start Minikube

minikube start

Add helm repositories

helm repo add bitnami https://charts.bitnami.com/bitnami

Update charts

helm dependency update src/helm-chart

DEV Profile helm deployment

helm upgrade \
    --install -f src/helm-chart/values.yaml \
    --set spring.profiles.active=dev \
    --set db.enabled=false \
    example-deployment src/helm-chart --force

PROD Profile helm deployment

helm upgrade \
    --install -f src/helm-chart/values.yaml \
    --set spring.profiles.active=prod \
    --set db.enabled=true \
    --set db.postgresqlDatabase=orders-db \
    --set db.postgresqlUsername=user \
    --set db.postgresqlPassword=password \
    --set db.persistence.enabled=false \
    example-deployment src/helm-chart --force

Watch the deployment

watch kubectl get pods

Test Order Microservice APIS

Firstly, install httpie command line tool.

sudo apt install httpie

Open New Terminal - Port forward for order microservice

# Get pods -> Run the following command
kubectl get pods
# Output
NAME                                            READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
example-deployment-helm-chart-8ff55d4db-rnt6j   1/1     Running   0          12m
example-deployment-db-0               1/1     Running   0          12m
# Port forward -> Run the following command
kubectl port-forward example-deployment-helm-chart-8ff55d4db-rnt6j 8080:8080

Open New Terminal - Call order service APIS

# POST orders
echo '{"item": "k8s-item", "quantity": 20}' | http POST :8080/orders
# GET orders
http :8080/orders

We are done ! Thanks for reading. Github